Giza (11km)- The three main pyramids of Egypt. Khufu, Khafra and Menkaure. Sphinx. Sound and Light Show. Solar boat and much more. (It is also the proposed site for the new Antiquities Museum).
Saqqara (32km) - Djoser's Step Pyramid .Serapeum. Unas Pyramid. Many other sites and tombs.
Memphis (30km) - Scant remains of the old capital. There is a museum which houses a supine statue of Ramses the Great. A visit is usually included with your visit to Saqqara.
Museum of Antiquities (city center) - The famous Treasures of Tutankhamun and The Pharaoh Mummies. (Plus many others) There are talks of moving the treasures to the Giza Necropolis.
Dahshur (45km) The Bent and Red pyramids of the Pharaoh Snofru.
Theban Necropolis (across the Nile to the west bank) - Valley of the Kings and Queens, Collossi, Temples of Medinet Habu, and Deir el Bahri, Ramessuem, Seti Temple, Deir el Medina (workers village) and others.
Karnak Temple (city centre) - Hatshepsut's obelisk, sacred lake, Hypostyle Hall, Temple of Amun and much more. Sound and Light Show
Luxor Temple (city center) - Statues of Ramses, Colonnade, Temple of Tuthmoses, Amenhotep's courtyard and more.
Dendara Temple Built during the Ptolemaic (Greek rule) period which included Cleopatra's reign. It still has its roof intact. It can be reached by private taxi, but most people opt for a day long cruise up the River Nile to Qena and then a 8km trip by coach to the temple. Beware - it is a very long day and although most people start off basking on the sundeck by mid afternoon everyone is looking for that elusive shade. Take plenty of sun protection and a hat.
Philae Temple (approx.15km) Temple of Isis. Light and Sound Show.
Abu Simbel (280km) The temples built by Ramses the Great to celebrate his victories and his beloved wife, Nefetari.The site can be reached either by plane, or a four and a half hour coach journey through the desert starting about 4am. All the coaches set off at the same time with police protection to the front and rear of the large convoy.
Edfu Temple (115km from Luxor/105km Aswan) Temple dedicated to the god Horus. Very well preserved site.
Komombo Temple (30km from Aswan) Temples dedicated to Horus and Sobek. And the nile crocodile.
Balloon Rides daily over Giza and Theban Necropolis. Expensive, (1998 - £80 per person), but worth the trip if the weather is fine. Beware however, if the weather is not good on the day you book they will keep trying until the weather is favourable. They do not like to give refunds. This sounds okay, but as it usually involves an early morning rise, 5-6am, you will be extremely tired after two or three mornings of having to get up to see if the trip will go ahead or not. And you do not always know if it will be cancelled until you arrive at the departure site, so it can also involve a wasted journey.
This list is by no means exhausted and only notes the main sites visited by tourists and tour operators. Most package deal holidays will probably include organised tours, either as part of your itinary, or offered to you on arrival. I suggest you make use of these tours, especially if it's your first visit to Egypt, as travelling independently can be a little overwhelming until you get accustomed to dealing with the more persistant locals.